This was a nationally aired news item on pesticides for mange and fleas Killing dogs and making them sick. Follow the link and come back and find more about how to do it safely and easily without risking your pets health whether it is a dog, cat or other pet.click here to watch a great mites video. Learn what can happen to your pets.
There are several different types of Mites that are likely to infest your pets and your home.
Mites are not insects. They are more closely related to spiders. They have eight legs and most are very tiny. Most species you need at least a magnifying glass to see them. The most common varieties found on dogs and other pets are listed. Some separate varieties are present like Demodex canis infects dogs but Demodex Gatoi will infest cats but the major species is Demodex.
There are three different main types of Mites that are referred to as Mange.
Sarcoptes scabiei mites
Cheyletiella mites cause an itchy, scaling
skin disease called Cheyletiellosis. It
is a mite found in dogs often called walking dandruff. This term is used
because when you carefully look at an infested dog, it may appear that the
dandruff is moving. The actual movement is caused by the Cheyletiella mites
moving around under the flakes of skin. Cheyletiella
mites live over the entire body, but the itching often seems worse over the
Scabies in Humans are a skin infection that is caused by a microscopic mite that cannot be viewed by the eye. It is highly contagious and can be easily transferred by way of direct contact with people or objects infested. The Scabies mite can be caught by anyone and there is a myth that it is because of being unclean. Hospitals, nursing homes and dormitories are all places that scabies is easily transferred between people. It also happens during sexual contact.
Scabies mites begin to look for areas of the body that are less exposed such as the back where they cannot be scratched off as easily or the chest, armpits. The also hide in the genital area, between the toes, under the nails, and between the fingers. Female mites burrow short tunnels less than 1/8 of an inch long within the skin and lay eggs. The symptoms of a scabies infection happen because of an allergic reaction to the mites’ eggs, secretions, and feces.
Sarcoptes Scabiei mites are very tiny and invisible to the naked eye. The female mite will burrow beneath the skin and create a tiny tunnel in which to lay the eggs. These eggs hatch in about 3-4 days and take around 10 total days to mature. The newly hatched mites will crawl out of the burrow to the surface of the skin where they live until the female mates and form a new burrow.
The Sarcoptes scabiei mites dig burrows for laying eggs into and through the skin. These burrows and the eggs and feces in them may cause intense itching and crusting of the skink that can quickly become infected with bacteria.
The symptoms of hair loss and the crusting skin frequently appear first on elbows, ears and face. Skin damage can occur from the dogs intense scratching and biting. Secondary skin infection with pussy open wounds is also common. There is often a funky smell that comes with mange as well. Dogs with chronic Sarcoptic mange are often in poor physical condition and have weak immune systems for a variety of reasons.
Old dogs can have weak immune systems as can puppies before they develop fully. The simple act of taking a dog to a vet and getting immunization shots and getting the multiple shot instead of individual ones can trigger a loss of immune function sufficient to start mange mites growing. Even a change in the dogs’ emotional state can trigger it moving from one house to another, having a loved one move away to college and other things just like in a human when you are not happy you tend to get sick more often.
Sarcoptes scabiei also known as canine scabies or Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei canis, a burrowing mite. Each animal has its own version of the mite and it will generally only thrive on that specific type of host. The canine Sarcoptic mite can also infest humans and cats, pigs, horses, sheep and various other species for short periods of time but it cannot reproduce without the dog host and mites will die off within the 21 day life span of that mite.
Veterinarians will gather skin samples acquired by using a scalpel to scrape different areas of the animal in an attempt to diagnose which if any mites are causing the problem. This test is not always accurate since in many cases the animal has already scratched the affected area and removed the mites causing it. The mites are so tiny that they are about the size of the period at the end of this sentence. So they are not always found this way sometimes a blood test is used since certain chemicals will be changed in the blood during a mites' infestation.
One very easy way of determining if a dog has mange is if it displays what is called the Pedal-Pinna reflex. If you manipulate or rub the dogs ears especially toward the edge the dog may move one of its hind legs in a scratching motion as the ear is being manipulated and scratched gently. The mites grow rapidly on the ear margins and for some reason the dog will move its hind leg as a sympathetic movement when it is rubbed this way. Pedal-Pinna Reflex method works over 95% of the time and is a great home test to see if that is what is causing the dog to loose hair. Other parasites can cause similar problems so it is important to know what is causing it. It is not uncommon however to do a mange mite treatment just in case and see if it helps anyway.
Affected dogs need to be isolated from other dogs and their bedding, and places they have occupied must be thoroughly cleaned. Other dogs in contact with a diagnosed case should be evaluated and treated.
There are a number of parricidal treatments useful in treating canine scabies. Sulfurated lime rinses applied weekly or bi-weekly are effective.
Demodex mites Demodectic mange
A wide range of pets can be infected with Demodex and Demodectic mange mites. These pets can be dogs, cats, ferrets, rabbits and other domestic and farm animals. Demodectic mange also called demodicosis or Red Mange is caused by sensitivity to an overpopulation of Demodex canis as the animal's immune system is unable to keep the mites under control. Demodex is a mite that occurs naturally around the hair follicles of most dogs in low numbers around the face and other areas of the body. In most dogs, these mites never cause problems.
In some animals especially those with a weak or impaired immune system or animals with an intense stress, or malnutrition, the mites can reproduce rapidly. The rapid growth in the number of mites causes symptoms in sensitive dogs that range from mild irritation and hair loss on a small patch of skin to severe and widespread inflammation with open sores and pustules forming on the skin. In most cases with only 4 or less patches of mite infestation localized Demodex will correct itself as the immune system improves.
Minor cases of demodectic mange usually do not cause much itching but might cause open sores or pustules on the dog's skin, redness, scaling, hair loss, or any combination of these. It most commonly appears first on the face, around the eyes, or at the corners of the mouth, and on the forelimbs and paws.
In the more severe form, hair loss can occur in patches all over the body and might be accompanied by crusting, pain, enlarged lymph nodes, and deep skin infections.
For Demodectic mange is similar to other forms using skin scrapings but since some presence of Demodectic mites are normal it is more a counting of how many mites are found and does not conclusively show the dog is suffering from Demodex Mange. What the vet would consider abnormally high numbers of the mite are more useful.
In breeds such as the West Highland White Terrier, relatively minor skin irritation which would otherwise be considered allergy should be carefully scraped because of the predilection of these dogs to demodectic mange. Skin scrapings may be used to follow the progress of treatment in demodectic mange.
Some breeds appear to have an increased risk of mild cases
as young dogs, including the Afghan hound, American Staffordshire terrier,
Boston terrier, Boxer,
Demodectic mange also occurs in other domestic and wild animals. The mites are specific to their hosts, and each mammal species is host to one or two unique species of Demodex mites. There are two types of demodectic mange in cats. Demodex cati causes follicular mange, similar to that seen in dogs, though it is much less common. Demodex gatoi is a more superficial form of mange, causes an itchy skin condition, and is contagious amongst cats.
Localized demodectic mange is considered a common puppyhood ailment, with roughly 90% of cases resolving on their own with no treatment. Minor, localized cases are often treated with medicated shampoos and not treated with agents aimed at killing mites as these infestations often resolve within several weeks in young dogs.
Demodectic mange with secondary infection is treated with antibiotics and medicated shampoos as well as parricidal agents.
Many insecticides will treat Mites infestations relatively effectively but the safety of using them has been questioned often.
Permethrin is perhaps the most commonly prescribed insecticide and when used in a lotion is known to have unpleasant side effects including itching and burning. Of greater concern is the fact that this is a synthetic form of the chemical, Pyrethrum, a pesticide with suspected cancer causing properties.
Lindane, another chemical pesticide that is still used in many countries despite that it has now been banned in over 40 countries for possible associations with leukemia, seizures and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
Malathion is another harsh chemical insecticide. Malathion has evidence to suggest that it can cause breathing difficulties.
Amitraz is a parricidal rinse that is licensed for use in many countries for treating canine demodicosis. It is applied weekly or biweekly, for several weeks, until no mites can be detected by skin scrapings.
Demodectic mange in dogs can also be managed with Ivermectin, although there are few countries which license these drugs, which are given by mouth, daily, for this use. Ivermectin is used most frequently; collie-like herding breeds often do not tolerate this drug due to a defect in the blood-brain barrier, though not all of them have this defect.
Some of the other drug categories include those based on Avermectin. Other drugs in the same family include Doramectin and Milbemycin.
Selamectin is a licensed chemical prescription Licensed in several countries which is applied as a drip-on medication directly to the skin.
Ivermectin is a medication given by mouth for two to four weekly treatments. Ivermectin is not safe to use on collies-and other herding dogs.
Cats with Demodex gatoi can be treated with weekly or bi-weekly sulfurated lime rinses. Demodex cati are treated similarly to canine demodicosis.
The immune system is compromised in most cases of severe mite infestation. In order to make the infestation go away faster some dietary changes may need to be made. Improvements in diet will not necessarily kill scabies off completely as the immune system recovers. Diet changes and the addition of certain foods and vitamins will undoubtedly help.
There are some foods and supplements that will boost and support the immune system. Other foods like garlic are well-known for their anti-parasitic properties and can be taken in either supplements or through the diet.
Some supplements which can assist the immune system to fight the infestation include Vitamin A, Primrose Oil, Zinc and Vitamin E.
What can happen in schools and dormitories? There is also a movie about clothing infected with scabies by employees in the movies section.
Johnstown school nurse Sunny Humphrey is seeking parents' assistance in an effort to fight a recurrence of scabies at Oregon Elementary.
Humphrey told The Independent that spots are back on some of the same students in the first-grade class that dealt with an outbreak in early March.
"We are assuming resurgence," she said. "It isn't like there are new cases. We're researching it and redoubling our efforts."
Scabies are tiny mites that burrow under the skin and produce intense itching and red bumps that usually look like insect bites. The mites are attracted to the warmth of humans, especially to areas like the underarms and between the fingers.
The bumps often don't appear until four to six weeks after the infestation, Humphrey said. Scabies are spread by skin-to-skin contact.
The district needs parents' help in being alert to the symptoms and taking their children for treatment, if they show signs of scabies.
"Don't just consider it a mosquito or flea bite," Humphrey said. "We need the parents help in communicating with us. We're doing all we can do. I appreciate the parents who're offering suggestions. I'm open to listening to suggestions."
She said six cases of scabies were originally confirmed, including the first-grade teacher.
"Naturally we're on high alert," Humphrey said. "So far, it's contained to that classroom."
The district hired an expert nurse for most of last week to help with the effort, according to Humphrey.
"We're putting an extra person on it, making sure children are getting clothes in a bag," she said. "It's taking a lot of time to fight this for me. There are still 1,500 other kids in the district too. We've been successful in containing it so far, so good. I hope we've got it."
Following the advice of the Licking County Health Department, the first-grade classroom has been cleaned and inspected and the students are now keeping their coats and book bags in individual plastic bags during school hours.
The LCHD also recommended the school clean any upholstered furniture and rugs, as well as any plush toys or other items in the affected classroom.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention indicate that children and adults can return to school or work 24 hours after being properly treated.
In addition, the CDC recommends that bedding and clothing of those individuals who are infested with scabies be washed in hot water and dried on the hot cycle in order to assist with controlling the infestation.
Sarcoptes scabei mites live approximately 21 days either on the surface of the host’s skin or burrowing underneath it. The female mite after mating will dig a burrow under the hosts’ skin that is roughly an 1/8 of an inch long. As the mite burrows it lays eggs and deposits feces under the skin. The feces can cause an allergic reaction and make the skin red, sore and itch really bad. The female can lay up to 40 eggs during her short lifetime and the eggs will hatch in 3-4 days. The mites will be mature and able to mate and lay eggs themselves within 10 days total. The mites after hatching return to the surface of the skin where they live off of the skin of the host.
The microscopic Sarcoptes mites can easily be transferred to the skin of other dogs or puppies and even other types of animals causing secondary infections and hair loss.
Sarcoptic Mange or Canine scabies can infect all breeds of dogs and all ages. The Sarcoptes mite are specialized Sarcoptes Canis prefers to live on dogs; Sarcoptes Gatoi is bred to live primarily on cats and so forth. Each species has a PREFERRED host. The Scabies mite can also infect cats, ferrets, humans, and fox. They do not breed off of the preferred host but they CAN infect others so you can get an itchy rash if you play with Rover, Kitty or other animals with the mites. They can live off of your skin quite nicely. You will notice when you take a nice hot bath that your skin begins to itch like crazy guess what you are the new host to the Scabies mite.
When dealing with cats and talking about Sarcoptic mange they can also be referring to a mite that is closely related called the Notoedres Cati a mite closely related to Sarcoptes scabei. For cats and that mite even though it is similar it would be more correct to refer to it as Notoedric mange. Notoedric mange, in cats is likely to produce facial itching and scabbing. The treatment is essentially the same irregardless of which species is involved.
The Sarcoptic mites infesting the pet are likely to cause constant scratching which promotes hair loss and spreading the infestation. Both the mites and the scratching are likely to cause lesions in the skin and pustules that are full of bacteria. Secondary infection can be serious and whatever treatment you use should address that and give you a way to heal the open sores and kill of the bacteria.
Look for mucus and fluids in the ears since the parasites there will live on those fluids. The ears should be without a strong objectionable smell or mucus if the mites are not infecting them. There can be moisture in the ears but if it is discolored it can be a sign that infestation has occurred. Veterinarians will usually take multiple scrapings of skin to be examined under a microscope for the mites. Sarcoptes mites may only be present in small numbers and are often removed by dogs scratching and chewing the skin. The diagnosis of Sarcoptic mange is more often done using the symptoms of mange rather than always finding the mites.
Understand that mites are present on the dog most of the time and cause the dog no harm. It is when they begin to multiply and get out of hand that it causes a risk to the animal. Most of the time it also indicates that the immune system is weak. This can happen from stress on the animal, diet or other reasons. If you have moved, a child has gone off to college or even something as simple as taking the pet to the vet and getting an all in one shot for immunization instead of the single shots for each disease can upset the immune system and allow the mites to gain the upper hand and multiply.
Dog Mites normally live about 21 days and the females lay their eggs after burrowing under your dogs skin. The eggs hatch and in a few days the new mites are mature and are able to start the cycle over again. The only thing that shortens the life of the mite is cold weather. During cold weather the lifespan of the mite is dramatically reduced so the females may only lay one crop of eggs. Each female can lay up to 40 eggs during her lifetime in warm weather. This accounts for the very rapid increase in the numbers and itchiness of the dog. The numbers could grow from one to thousands very quickly.
One very simple way of checking if a dog has mange is watching to see if it displays the Pedal-Pinna reflex. This reflex happens when the ear is scratched and manipulated. If the dog moves one of its hind legs while the scratching is going on then it is likely that the dog has ear mites or Mange. It is helpful when the dog has all the signs of mites but none are found and it is 95% accurate.
If you take your Dog to the Vet this is likely what he will do to check and see if your dog has mites or mange.
If you take a dog to a Vet they are likely to isolate the dog since any contact with other dogs would just spread the mites and make it worse. Think of it like kids in school when one kid has head lice the whole class can get them. The vet will use a microscope and find out which kind of mite your dog has. Your dog may be kept for observation and stay on the premises and may be dipped in some rather harsh chemicals to try and kill the mites if they are present. Some of these treatments can be as harmful to your pet as the mites themselves are.
When dogs are initially infested with the mites they may not start itching for several weeks. If the animal has been treated and later is re-infested severe itching starts almost immediately. This indicates the itching may be due to an allergic reaction. Using standard treatments for allergies usually will not decrease the symptoms of scabies, and will do nothing to cure the disease.
Blood samples will often be taken since the mites can change the blood chemistry in your dog it is an easy way to see which kinds of mites are infesting your pet.
Making a diagnosis of Sarcoptes is not always easy the dogs scratching will often open the burrows and get the mites out so the skin scrapings that normally would show the mite may not work well. The skin is scrapped with a scalpel and the scrapings are examined under a microscope to find the mites. If mites are found the diagnosis is confirmed the lack of mites though does not rule out infestation.
The movement of the Sarcoptes mites on and in the skin and the laying of eggs in the burrows and depositing feces in the burrow as it digs into the skin generates an allergic response causing tremendous itching. This causes the Red, scaly, itchy, skin that characterizes Sarcoptic mange
These mites prefer the less hairy parts of the body so the forelegs, armpits, hocks, chest, abdomen and ear flaps are prime targets for them.
Small red pustules often develop along with yellow crusts on the skin.
Understand that mites are not the only things that can cause these symptoms. It can be caused by airborne allergies and food allergies and internal parasites as well.
The infestation can cover most of the pets’ body in time and the hair lost and crusty look and feel to the skin can be dramatic. In most instances the infestation will start on the ears, elbows and abdomen.
The skin may darken due to the constant irritation, and the lymph nodes may become enlarged.
Treating Sarcoptic Mange or Scabies.
The same treatments that work for Demodex and other mange mites will work for Sarcoptic mange.
We highly recommend you get the Mange Dog Report since it covers all the treatments and hazards of each and gives you natural easy options to get rid of mange of all types, fleas and some ticks as well as disinfect the wounds and clear up the pustules on your dogs skin and how to make your home safe from re-infesting YOU or your Dog during the treatment.
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This poor dog needs more than a kind word to get it back to health. But you could help even this dog if you have the Mange Mite Remedy report.